C++ Friend Interview Preparation Guide
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C++ Friend frequently Asked Questions in various C++ Friend job Interviews by interviewer. The set of questions here ensures that you offer a perfect answer posed to you. So get preparation for your new job hunting

20 C++ Friend Questions and Answers:

1 :: Explain friend function?

When the application is needed to access a private member of another class, the only way is to utilize the friend functions. The following are the guidelines to handle friend functions.

Declare the function with the keyword ‘friend’ that is followed by return type and followed by the function name.
Specify the class whose private members are to be accessed in the friend function within parenthesis of the friend function.
Write the code of the friend function in the class.

The following code snippet illustrates the use of friend function:

friend void display(car); //Friend of the class 'car'

void display(car myCar)
{
cout<<"\nThe color of my car is : "<<myCar.color;
cout<<"\nThe speed of my car is : "<<myCar.speed;
}
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2 :: What are friend classes?

The friend function is a ‘non member function’ of a class. It can access non public members of the class. A friend function is external to the class definition.
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3 :: Explain advantages of using friend classes?

A friend function has the following advantages:

- Provides additional functionality which is kept outside the class.
- Provides functions that need data which is not normally used by the class.
- Allows sharing private class information by a non member function.
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4 :: Explain the characteristics of friend functions?

A friend function is not in the scope of the class n which it has been declared as friend.
It cannot be called using the object of that class.
It can be invoked like a normal function without any object.
Unlike member functions, it cannot use the member names directly.
It can be declared in public or private part without affecting its meaning.
Usually, it has objects as arguments.
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5 :: What is a friend function?

To allow a non-member function the access to private members of a class, it needs to be friend of that class. Friend functions can access private and protected data of the class. To make a non-member function friend of a class, its declaration needs to be made inside the class and it has to be preceded by the keyword friend. We can also have a member function of a class to be friend of certain other class. Even if a function is not a member of any class, it can still be friend of multiple classes.

If we write equivalent friend function for a member function, then friend function has one extra parameter because being a non-member of the class, it does not have the caller object. Therefore, it does not have this pointer.

Friend functions are very useful for overloading certain types of operators. They also make creation of some type of I/O functions easier.

Consider following example of class 3D having data members x, y and z. Overloaded binary operator * for scalar multiplication. It should work in both cases:

ob1 = ob2 * 3;
ob1 = 3 * ob2;

Note that first can be achieved through member or friend function. But for the second case we need to write friend function since there is no caller object.

class 3D
{
int x, y, z;
public:
3D (int a=0, int b=0, int c=0)
{
x = a;
y = b;
z = c;
}
3D show()
{
cout<<”The elements are:\n”
cout<<”x:”<<this->x<<”, y:<<this->y <<”, z:”<<this->z;
}
friend 3D operator * (3D, int);
friend 3D operator * (int, 3D);
};

3D operator * (3D ob, int i) //friend function’s definition is written outside class
{
3D tob;
tob.x = ob.x * i;
tob.y = ob.y * i;
tob.z = ob.z * i;
return tob;
}

3D operator * (int i, 3D ob) //friend function’s definition is written outside class
{
3D tob;
tob.x = ob.x * i;
tob.y = ob.y * i;
tob.z = ob.z * i;
return tob;
}

int main()
{
3D pt1(2,-4,5), pt2, pt3;
pt 2 = pt1 * 3;
pt3 = -2 * pt1
cout << “\n Point one’s dimensions are: \n“<<pt1.show();
cout << “\n Point two’s dimensions are: \n“<<pt2.show();
cout << “\n Point three’s dimensions are: \n“<<pt3.show();
return 0;
}

The o/p would be:
Point one’s dimensions are:
x:2, y:-4, z:5
Point two’s dimensions are:
x:6, y:-12, z:15
Point three’s dimensions are:
x:-4, y:8, z:-10

Thus, friend functions are useful when we have to overload operators which have no caller object.
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6 :: What are the advantages of using friend classes?

There are situations when private data members need to be accessed and used by 2 classes simultaneously. In these kind of situations we can introduce friend functions which have an access to the private data members of both the classes. Friend functions need to be declared as ‘friend’ in both the classes. They need not be members of either of these classes.
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7 :: Which rule will not affect the friend function?
a) private and protected members of a class cannot be accessed from outside
b) private and protected member can be accessed anywhere
c) both a & b
d) None of the mentioned

a) private and protected members of a class cannot be accessed from outside
Explanation:
Friend is used to access private and protected members of a class from outside the same class.
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8 :: What is the syntax of friend function?
a) friend class1 Class2;
b) friend class;
c) friend class
d) None of the mentioned

a) friend class1 Class2;
Explanation:
In option a, the class2 is the friend of class1 and it can access all the private and protected members of class1.
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9 :: Which keyword is used to declare the friend function?
a) firend
b) friend
c) classfriend
d) myfriend

b) friend
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