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What is difference between Switch & Hub?


Switches operate at Layer 2 Data Link Layer
Address Learning
Forward / Filter decision using MAC address
Loop Avoidance
Breakup collision domains
Switches create separate collision domains but a single broadcast domain

Hub operates at Layer 1 Physical Layer
No Filtering
No Addressing
Hub creates single collision domain and single broadcast domain
Make forwarding to all the ports when signal is arrived

switch is an intelligent device
switch is a layer 2 protocol.
switch is a broadcast device it is a single broadcast multiple collision device,
switch can understand MAC address

hub is broadcasting device
hub is a layer 1 protocol
hub is a single broadcast single collision device.

switch operate at 2 link layer and hub operate 1 physical layer

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I simulate ten routers r1 to r10 straightly.
i want i can ping from the loop of r1 to loop of r10, but i want i cant ping r1 and r10 from inside routers.?
What is PING utility?