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What is Managerial Grid? Contract its approach to leadership with the approaches of the Ohio state and Michigan groups?


1. Blake and Mouton proposed a managerial grid based on
the styles of “concern for people” and “concern for
production,” which essentially represent the Ohio State
dimensions of consideration and initiating structure or the
Michigan dimensions of employee-oriented and

D. The Managerial Grid (cont.) Notes:
2. The grid has nine possible positions along each axis,
creating 81 different positions. (See Exhibit 11-1).

3. The grid shows the dominating factors in a leader’s
thinking in regard to getting results.

4. Based on the findings of Blake and Mouton, managers
were found to perform best under a 9,9 style, as contrasted,
for example, with a 9,1 (authority type) or 1,9
(lassiez-faire type) style. Unfortunately, the grid offers a
better framework for conceptualizing leadership style than
for presenting any tangible new information.

1. The most comprehensive and replicated of the behavioral
theories resulted from research that began at Ohio State
University in the late 1940s. These researchers sought to
identify independent dimensions of leader behavior.

2.They narrowed over a thousand dimensions into two
dimensions—initiating structure and consideration.

3.Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a
leader is likely to define and structure his/her role and
those of employees in the search for goal attainment.

A. The Ohio State Studies (cont.)
.It includes attempts to organize work, work relationships,
and goals.

.The leader high in initiating structure could be described
as someone who “assigns group members to particular tasks,”
“expects workers to maintain definite standards of
performance,” and “emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.”

4.Consideration is described as “the extent to which a
person is likely to have job relationships that are
characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas,
and regard for their feelings.”

•The leader shows concern for followers’ comfort,
well-being, status, and satisfaction.

.A leader high in consideration could be described as one
who helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and
approachable, and treats all employees as equals.

5.Leaders high in initiating structure and consideration
tended to achieve high employee performance and satisfaction.

.The “high-high” style did not always result in positive

.Leader behavior characterized as high on initiating
structure led to greater rates of grievances, absenteeism,
and turnover, and lower levels of job satisfaction for
routine tasks.
.High consideration was negatively related to performance
ratings of the leader by his/her superior.

University of Michigan Studies

1. Leadership studies were undertaken at the same time as
those being done at Ohio State, with similar research
objectives. They discovered two dimensions of leadership
behavior—employee-oriented and production-oriented.

2. Employee-oriented leaders emphasized interpersonal
relations. They took a personal interest in the needs of
their employees and accepted individual differences among

3. The production-oriented leaders tended to emphasize the
technical or task aspects of the job—group members were a
means to that end.

4. Michigan researchers’ conclusions strongly favored the
leaders who were employee oriented. Employee-oriented
leaders were associated with higher group productivity and
higher job satisfaction.

5. Production-oriented leaders tended to be associated
with low group productivity and lower job satisfaction.

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