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Explain about LTE and GSM internetworking.
Is it like GSM is used for backbone comm in LTE?


Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the next step from 3G/WCDMA &
HSPA for many already on the GSM technology curve but also
for others too, such as CDMA operators. This new radio
access technology will be optimized to deliver very fast
data speeds of up to 100Mb/s downlink and 50Mb/s uplink
(peak rates).

Designed to be backwards-compatible with GSM and HSPA, LTE
incorporates Multiple In Multiple Out (MIMO) in combination
with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
in the downlink and Single Carrier FDMA in the uplink to
provide high levels of spectral efficiency and end user data
rates exceeding 100 Mbps, coupled with major improvements in
capacity and reductions in latency. LTE will support channel
bandwidths from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz and both FDD and TDD

Although both LTE and WiMAX use the OFDMA air interface, LTE
has the advantage of being backwards compatible with
existing GSM and HSPA networks, enabling mobile operators
deploying LTE to continue to provide a seamless service
across LTE and existing deployed networks.

Several major mobile operators, including some running CDMA
networks today, have indicated they will adopt LTE in the
next few years. Japanese mobile operator NTT DOCOMO has said
that it is aiming to launch a commercial LTE network by the
end of 2009, while in the U.S., the largest CDMA operator,
Verizon Wireless, is currently trialing LTE with a view to
launching a commercial LTE service in 2010.

LTE- Advanced
LTE-Advanced extends the technological principles behind LTE
into a further step change in data rates. Incorporating
higher order MIMO (4x4 and beyond) and allowing multiple
carriers to be bonded together into a single stream, target
peak data rates of 1Gbps have been set.

LTE-Advanced also intends to use a number of further
innovations including the ability to use non-contiguous
frequency ranges, with the intent that this will alleviate
frequency range issues in an increasingly crowded spectrum,
self back-hauling base station and full incorporation of
Femto cells using Self-Organising Network techniques.

LTE-Advanced will be 3GPP’s technology as a candidate for
the ITU-R IMT-Advanced process, which is intended to
identify ‘4G’ technologies.

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