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Explain How does traceroute work? Now how does traceroute make sure that the packet follows the same path that a previous (with ttl - 1) probe packet went in?


First of all see traceroute works using ICMP packets. First source sends an ICMP packet with Time to Live (TTL) field as 1 to the destination address. Now intermediate router receives the packet and sees that TTL field has expired, so it sends a ICMP TTL expired reply. Now the source machine again sends the ICMP packet with TTL field as 2. This time second intermediate router replies. This process is repeated till destination is reached. That way the source can get the entire route upto destination.

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