Embryology Interview Preparation Guide
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Embryology Interview Questions and Answers will guide us now that Embryology is the study of the development of an embryo. An embryo is defined as any organism in an early stage well before birth or hatching, or in plants, before germination occurs. Learn Embryology basic and advance concepts or get preparation of Embryology Interview Questions and Answers Guide.

40 Embryology Questions and Answers:

1 :: What are the three types of germ layers that form tissues and organs in animals?

The three germ layers are the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm.

Image Diversity: germ layers

2 :: How is the mesoderm (third germ layer) of triploblastic animals formed?

The mesoderm appears from differentiation of endodermal cells that cover the dorsal region of the archenteron.

3 :: What are the archenteron and the blastopore? What is the stage of the embryonic development in which these structures are formed? What are the destinations of the archenteron and of the blastopore?

Archenteron is the tube formed during gastrulation by means of invagination of the blastula wall inside the blatocele. It is the origin of the gastrointestinal tract. Blastopore is the opening of the archenteron to the exterior. The blastopore gives birth to one of the extremities of the digestive tube: the mouth in protostome beings, or the anus in deuterostome beings.

4 :: What is gastrulation? How during gastrulation are the first two germ layers formed? Which are these germ layers?

Gastrulation is the process through which a portion of the blastula wall undergoes invagination inside the blastocele forming a tube called archenteron (primitive intestine). The cells of the inner side of the tube form the endoderm (germ layer) and the cells of the outer side form the ectoderm (another germ layer). It is the beginning of the tissue differentiation in the embryonic development.

6 :: After the morula stage what is the next stage? What is the morphological feature that defines that stage?

After passing the morula stage in which the embryo was a compact mass of cells, the next stage is the blastula stage. In the blastula stage, the compactness is lost and an internal cavity filled with fluid appears inside, the blastocele.

Image Diversity: blastula

7 :: What are the cells produced in the first stage of the embryonic development called?

The cells that resulted from the cleavage (the first stage of the embryonic development) are called blastomeres. In this stage the embryo is called morula (similar to a “morus”, mulberry).

Image Diversity: morula

8 :: What is the cell division during the first stage of the embryonic development called? How is this stage characterized?

The cell division in the first stage of the embryonic developments is called cleavage, or segmentation. In this stage, mitosis occurs from the zygote forming the new embryo.

9 :: What are the four initial stages of the embryonic development?

The four initial stages of the embryonic development are the morula stage, the blastula stage, the gastrula stage, and the neurula stage.

10 :: What are the animal pole and the vegetal pole of the vertebrate egg?

The animal pole of a telolecithal egg is the portion of the egg with little vitellus, it is opposite to the vegetal pole that is the region where the yolk is concentrated.

Image Diversity: animal and vegetal poles

11 :: What is the function of the vitellus in the vertebrate egg? How are these eggs classified according to the amount of vitellus within them?

Vitellus (yolk) is the nutritive material that accumulates in the cytoplasm of the egg (zygote) with the function of nourishing the embryo. According to the amount of vitellus in them, the vertebrate eggs are classified as oligolecithal (little yolk), centrolecithal, or heterolecithal (more yolk diffusely distributed) and telolecithal (more yolk concentrated in one end of the egg).

12 :: What is the cell division process directly related to the embryonic growth?

The embryonic growth depends directly on mitosis. Through this type of cell division, the zygote divides itself giving birth to a series of cells that by mitosis too compose differentiated tissues and organs until the formation of a complete individual.

13 :: How are animals classified according to the germ layers present in their embryonic development?

Cnidarians are diploblastic, i.e., they present only endoderm and ectoderm. With the exception of poriferans, all remaining animals are triploblastic. Poriferans do not present differentiated tissue organization and so they do not classify regarding germ layers (although sometimes they are mentioned as diploblastic).

14 :: How does the embryo turn from gastrula into neurula? How is the neural tube formed? What is the embryonic origin of the nervous system in vertebrates?

The neurula stage is characterized by the appearing of the neural tube along the dorsal region of the embryo. The growing of mesoderm in that region induces the differentiation of ectodermal cells just above. These cells then differentiate forming the neural tube. Therefore, the origin of the nervous system is the ectoderm (the same germ layer that gives birth to the skin).

Image Diversity: neurula

15 :: What is notochord? How is this structure formed?

Notochord is a rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the embryo and gives birth to the vertebral column in vertebrates. It is formed by differentiation of mesodermal cells.

16 :: What is coelom? To which structures do coeloms give birth? Are all animals coelomate?

Coeloms are cavities delimited by mesoderm. Coeloms originate the cavities where the internal organs of the body are located, like the pericardial cavity, the peritoneal cavity, and the pleural cavity. Besides coelomate animals, there are acoelomate animals, like platyhelminthes, and pseudocoelomate animals, like nematodes.

Image Diversity: coelom

18 :: What are pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum?

Pleura are the membrane that covers the lungs and the inner wall of the chest; pericardium is the membrane that covers the heart; peritoneum is the membrane that covers most organs of the gastrointestinal tract and part of the abdominal cavity. All these membranes delimit coeloms (internal cavities).

Image Diversity: pleura pericardium peritoneum

19 :: After the neurula stage and from its ventral portion to the dorsal how can the morphology of the embryo be described?

In a schematic longitudinal section of the embryo after the neurula stage, the outermost layer of cells is the ectoderm. In the ventral region comes the archenteron tube formed of endodermal cells. In both sides of the embryo, coeloms delimited by mesoderm are present. In the central region above the archenteron and in the middle of the coeloms there is the notochord. In the dorsal region just above the notochord lies the neural tube.

20 :: What are somites?

Somites are differentiated portions of mesodermal tissue longitudinally distributed along the embryo. The somites originate the muscle tissue and portions of the connective tissues.

Image Diversity: somites