Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) are space weapons designed to incapacitate or destroy satellites for strategic military purposes. Currently, only the United States, the former USSR (now Russia) and the People's Republic of China are known to have developed these weapons. On September 13, 1985, the United States destroyed US satellite P78-1 using an ASM-135 ASAT anti-satellite missile and malfunctioning US spy satellite USA-193 using a RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 on February 21, 2008. On January 11, 2007, China destroyed an old Chinese orbiting weather satellite.
A space observatory is any instrument in outer space which is used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects. This category is distinct from other observatories located in space that are pointed toward the earth for the purpose of reconnaissance and other types of information gathering.
A biosatellite is a satellite designed to carry life in space.
NASA launched three satellites specifically named Biosatellite (1, 2 & 3) between 1966 and 1969.
► Bion series of satellites
► the Mars Gravity Biosatellite.
► Orbiting Frog Otolith
A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to COMSAT) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar) Earth orbits.
Miniaturized satellites or small satellites are artificial satellites of unusually low weights and small sizes, usually under 500 kg (1100 lb). While all such satellites can be referred to as small satellites, different classifications are used to categorize them based on mass.
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