Hibernate (Java) Interview Preparation Guide
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Hibernate Interview Questions and Answers will guide us now that Hibernate is an object-relational mapping (ORM) library for the Java language, providing a framework for mapping an object-oriented domain model to a traditional relational database. Hibernate solves object-relational impedance mismatch problems by replacing direct persistence-related database accesses with high_level object handling functions. Learn more about Hibernate bu this Hibernate Interview Questions with Answers guide

52 Hibernate Questions and Answers:

1 :: What is Hibernate?

Hibernate is a pure Java object-relational mapping (ORM) and persistence framework that allows you to map plain old Java objects to relational database tables using (XML) configuration files.Its purpose is to relieve the developer from a significant amount of relational data persistence-related programming tasks.
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2 :: What is ORM?

ORM stands for Object/Relational mapping. It is the programmed and translucent perseverance of objects in a Java application in to the tables of a relational database using the metadata that describes the mapping between the objects and the database. It works by transforming the data from one representation to another.
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3 :: What does an ORM solution comprises of?

It should have an API for performing basic CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations on objects of persistent classes Should have a language or an API for specifying queries that refer to the classes and the properties of classes An ability for specifying mapping metadata It should have a technique for ORM implementation to interact with transactional objects to perform dirty checking, lazy association fetching, and other optimization functions
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4 :: What are the different levels of ORM quality?

There are four levels defined for ORM quality.
Pure relational
object mapping
Medium object mapping
Full object mapping
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5 :: What is a pure relational ORM?

The entire application, including the user interface, is designed around the relational model and SQL-based relational operations.
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6 :: Why do you need ORM tools like hibernate?

The main advantage of ORM like hibernate is that it shields developers from messy SQL. Apart from this, ORM provides following benefits:
► Improved productivity
* High-level object-oriented API
* Less Java code to write
* No SQL to write

► Improved performance
* Sophisticated caching
* Eager loading

► Improved maintainability
* A lot less code to write

► Improved portability
* ORM framework generates database-specific SQL for you
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7 :: What is a meant by light object mapping?

The entities are represented as classes that are mapped manually to the relational tables. The code is hidden from the business logic using specific design patterns. This approach is successful for applications with a less number of entities, or applications with common, metadata-driven data models. This approach is most known to all.
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8 :: What is a meant by medium object mapping?

The application is designed around an object model. The SQL code is generated at build time. And the associations between objects are supported by the persistence mechanism, and queries are specified using an object-oriented expression language. This is best suited for medium-sized applications with some complex transactions. Used when the mapping exceeds 25 different database products at a time.
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9 :: What is meant by full object mapping?

Full object mapping supports sophisticated object modeling: composition, inheritance, polymorphism and persistence. The persistence layer implements transparent persistence; persistent classes do not inherit any special base class or have to implement a special interface. Efficient fetching strategies and caching strategies are implemented transparently to the application.
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10 :: What are the benefits of ORM and Hibernate?

There are many benefits from these. Out of which the following are the most important one.
Productivity : Hibernate reduces the burden of developer by providing much of the functionality and let the developer to concentrate on business logic.
Maintainability :As hibernate provides most of the functionality, the LOC for the application will be reduced and it is easy to maintain. By automated object/relational persistence it even reduces the LOC.
Performance : Hand-coded persistence provided greater performance than automated one. But this is not true all the times. But in hibernate, it provides more optimization that works all the time there by increasing the performance. If it is automated persistence then it still increases the performance.
Vendor independence : Irrespective of the different types of databases that are there, hibernate provides a much easier way to develop a cross platform application.
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