Embedded Systems Interview Preparation Guide
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Embedded Systems frequently Asked Questions by expert members with experience in Embedded Systems. So get preparation for the Embedded Systems job interview

18 Embedded Systems Questions and Answers:

1 :: What is the difference between fifo and the memory?

Fifo(First In Last Out) is a memory sturcture where datas can be stored and retrived (in the order of its entery only). This is a queue,wheras Memory is a storage device which can hold datas dynamically or at any desired locations and can be retrived in any order.
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2 :: Is it necessary to start the execution of a program from the main() in C?

"Normally you are at liberty to give functions whatever
names you like, but ``main'' is special - your program
begins executing at the beginning of main. This means that
every program must have a main somewhere." Kernighan &
Ritchie - The C Programming Language 2ed. p.6
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3 :: Write a code in C / Verilog to implement a basic FIR filter?

%program for FIR filters

disp('choose the window from the list');
ch=menu('types of
windows','bartlett','blackman','hamming','hanning','kaiser',
'rectangular');
rp=input('enter the passband ripple in db');
rs=input('enter the stopband ripple in db');
wsample=input('enter sampling frequency in hertz');
wp=input('enter the passband frequency in hertz');
ws=input('enter the stopband frequency in hertz');
wp=2*wp/wsample; ws=2*ws/wsample;
p=20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13;
q=14.6*(ws-wp)/wsample;
N=1+floor(p/q);
N1=N;
if(rem(N,2)==0)
N1=N+1;
else
N=N-1;
end
switch ch
case 1
y=bartlett(N1);
case 2
y=blackman(N1);
case 3
y=hamming(N1);
case 4
y=hanning(N1);
case 5
beta=input('enter beta for kaiser window');
y=kaiser(N1,beta);
case 6
y=boxcar(N1);
otherwise
disp('enter proper window number');
end
disp('select the type of filter from the list');
type=menu('types of
filters','lowpass','highpass','bandpass','bandstop');
switch type
case 1
b=fir1(N,wp,'low',y);
case 2
b=fir1(N,wp,'high',y);
case 3
b=fir1(N,[wp ws],'bandpass',y);
case 4
b=fir1(N,[wp ws],'stop',y);
otherwise
disp('enter type number properly');
end
[h,w]=freqz(b,1,512);
magn=20*log10(abs(h));
phase=(180/pi)*unwrap(angle(h));
w=(w*wsample)/(2*pi);
subplot(2,1,1); plot(w,magn),grid on;title('magnitude
plot'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(w,phase),grid on;title('phase
plot');
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5 :: What is an anti aliasing filter? Why is it required?

Anti aliasing filter reduces errors due to aliasing. If a
signal is sampled at 8 kS/S, the max frequency of the input
should be 4 kHz. Otherwise, aliasing errors will result.
Typically a 3.4kHz will have an image of 4.6 khz, and one
uses a sharp cut off filter with gain of about 1 at 3.4kHz
and gain of about 0.01 at 4.6 kHz to effectively guard
against aliasing. Thus one does not quite choose max
frequency as simply fs/2 where fs is sampling frequency.
One has to have a guard band of about 10% of this fmax, and
chooses max signal frequency as 0.9*fs/2
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