The PAssage of time is one reason. Buildings also collapse due to weak foundations. Earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters can also damage the structure of the buildings and cause it to collapse. Bombings or demolition of buildings is also other reasons.
As the term implies, "Modulus of Elasticity” relates to the elasticity or "flexibility" of a material. The value of modulus of elasticity is very much significant relating to deflection of certain materials used in the construction industry. Take for example the general E value of mild carbon steel is about 200 GPA comPAred to about 70 GPA for aluminum. This simply translate that aluminum is 3 times flexible than steel.
The routine maintenance is the minor and consistent rePAirs that are engaged in the school premises. Examples could include PAinting, replacement of fixtures, louver blades, furniture rePAirs, and PAtching cracks in the school buildings.
The major maintenance could also be a total rehabilitation of the school, either school buildings or any other project within the school community. It could be total restructuring of the lighting system in the school or sanitary system.
After calculating the anticiPAted traffic for the bridge, cement/reinforced- with- rebar stanchions are sPAced over the freeway to accommodate the bridge. An 'off-ramp' from the freeway to the bridge is constructed, as is an 'on-ramp' to the subsequent road. Cement/rebar slabs are built and lifted with cranes to form the platform, and voila! Drive carefully.
Although the bridge deck/roadway is almost always a concrete slab, the structure that holds up the bridge deck can be reinforced concrete, structural steel, or a combination of steel and concrete.
Absorption generally refers to two phenomena, which are largely unrelated. In one case, it refers to when atoms, molecules, or ions enter some bulk phase - gas, liquid or solid material. For instance, a sponge absorbs water when it is dry.
Absorption also refers to the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make transition between two electronic energy levels. The photon is destroyed in the process. The absorbed energy may be re-emitted as radiant energy or transformed into heat energy. The absorption of light during wave proPAgation is often called attenuation. The tools of spectroscopy in chemistry are based on the absorption of photons by atoms and molecules.
Adsorption is similar, but refers to a surface rather than a volume: adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorb-ate). It is different from absorption, in which a substance diffuses into a liquid or solid to form a solution.
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