Most nature and scenic professionals use -1.3 to -1.7 stops for their fill flash setting because they are trying to do one thing only: increase shadow detail (an alternate way of saying this: decrease overall scene contrast). Why? Because exposures for slide film need to be biased to the brightest object in the scene (i.e., overexposure of slide film is VERY bad). Since film has a limited dynamic range it can record with reasonable detail, if you set your exposure to put the highlight at the white point, you often lose shadow detail. The purpose of the fill flash, therefore, is to raise the film's response curve at the shadow point without further blowing out the detail. The -1.3 to -1.7 values are often just enough to pull another "stop" of useful shadow detail into an exposure without adding unduly to the highlight exposure. Films like Velvia are especially troublesome,
Let's assume that you have an N80 body in an underwater case and are using underwater TTL strobes. Here you could set flash exposure compensation from the N80 body (assuming the case let you access that control). I'd tend to set the N80 to Standard TTL if I wanted to fiddle with flash levels, though, as in balanced fill-flash modes you don't know what compensation the camera is already adding (i.e., you'll only get repeatable results with Standard TTL).
Yes and no. When you shoot with flash, there are two exposures going on: the flash exposure on the subject and the background exposure. If flash is the main source of light, a stationary subject lit by it should always be sharp, as the slowest Nikon flash duration is about 1/830 of a second. The background, however, very well may go soft or get blurred by poor handholding technique or subject movement. Many photographers have learned to use this to their advantage--there's one style of flash that uses very long shutter speeds and panning/zooming/tilting to purposefully blur the background yet still use the flash to "freeze" the subject.
No because they do not like "blinking things" on their screens, some users choose to disable or not install Flash Player.
While this is partly motivated by fears of Flash viruses and Flash hackers, the greater motivation is disciplining staff. Many managers of private companies do not want their employees playing Flash games at their office computers, so they will ban Flash movies at work through technical blockers on the network. Do not be surprised if your employer chooses to implement a ban of Flash at your office.
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