Computer Architecture And Design Question:
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Explain What are the different hazards? How do we avoid them?


There are situations, called hazards, that prevent the next instruction in the instruction stream from executing during its designated clock cycle. Hazards reduce the performance from the ideal speedup gained by pipelining. There are three classes of Hazards:

1. Structural Hazards: It arise from resource conflicts when the hardware cannot support all possible combinations of instructions simultaniously in ovelapped execution.

2. Data Hazards: It arise when an instruction depends on the results of previous instruction in a way that is exposed by the ovelapping of instructions in the pipeline.

3. Control Hazards: It arise from the pipelining of branches and other instructions that change the PC.

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Explain How many types of memory in computer architecture?Instead of just 5-8 pipe stages why not have, say, a pipeline with 50 pipe stages?