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Explain What are similarities and differences between the transcription process and the replication processes?


A DNA polynucleotide chain serves as template in replication (DNA duplication) as well in transcription (RNA formation). In both processes, the pairing of the two-polynucleotide chains of the original DNA molecule is broken by the breaking of hydrogen bonds for the chains to be exposed as templates. The reaction is catalyzed by specific enzymes in transcription and in replication.

In replication, the enzyme DNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of a new polynucleotide chain using free nucleotides in solution and putting them in the new chain according to the DNA template exposed and to the rule A-T, C-G. In transcription, the enzyme RNApolymerase makes a new polynucletide chain according to the DNA template exposed obeying, however, the rule A-U, C-G.

In replication, the original template DNA chain is kept bound by hydrogen bonds to the newly formed DNA chain and a new DNA molecule is then created. In transcription the association between the template DNA chain and the newly formed RNA is undid and RNA constituted of only one polynucleotide chain is liberated.

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